Technology available to License

We offer a significant patent portfolio in Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (Surface Plasmon Enhanced Fluorescence) and Fluorescent Probes (fluorophores) which are available for either immediate license or sale (assignment). Many of our patents are available both exclusive and non-exclusively and carve-outs in particular fields of use are possible. Interested parties should e-mail Professor Geddes directly at:

Patents by Chris Geddes

Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence and Surface Plasmon Enhanced Technologies


1. US 20120282630 Mixed-metal substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence

This invention provides for mixed metal structures that can be deposited on a substrate or free in solution that exhibit several distinctive properties including a broad wavelength range for enhancing fluorescence signatures. Further, metal surface plasmons can couple and as such diphase coupled luminescence signatures, creating extra plasmon absorption bands. The extra bands allow for a broad range of fluorophores to couple therefore making more generic substrates with wider reaching fluorescence enhancing applications. Given the complex patent landscape with regard to metal-enhanced fluorescence, this IP readily allows a licensee to potentially practice Metal-enhanced Fluorescence using these novel substrates.

Regions available: Europe

References for the Technology:

Goldberg, K., Elbaz, A., Zhang, Y., Dragan, A., Marks, R., and Geddes, C. D., (2011). Mixed-Metal Substrates for Applications in Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21, 6179-6185.


2. US 8906701 Sonication-assisted metal-enhanced fluorescence (SAMEF)-based bioassays

This invention provides for sonication-assisted metal-enhanced fluorescence, luminescence, and/or chemiluminescence assay systems using low-intensity ultrasound waves to significantly reduce the assay time by increasing the kinetic movement of molecules within the system. In addition, the presence of metallic nanoparticles additionally intrinsically enhances fluorescence, luminescence or chemiluminescence labels. In essence, SAMEF provides for fast and sensitive assays to be developed. This unique combination of both sonic-acceleration with metal-enhanced fluorescence will potentially allow a licensee to develop surface enhanced fluorescence rapid assays for life science applications.

Regions available: - Multiple regions of the world are available to license

References for the Technology:

Aslan, K., Zhang, Y. and Geddes, C.D. (2009). Sonication-Assisted Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (SAMEF)-based Bioassays, Analytical Chemistry, 81, 4713-4719.


3. US 8618505 Plasmonic electricity

This invention relates to detection systems and methods that detect fluorescence, luminescence, chemiluminescence or phosphorescence signatures in the form of an electrical signal conducted and emitted from metallic containing surfaces. Thus, the present invention provides for detecting fluorescence digitally and directly without the need for expensive detectors. This technology has significant merit for fluorescence-based immunoassays and in solar energy conversion. Specific fields of use would be considered for a license.

Regions available: - Multiple regions of the world are available to license


4. WO 2007095527 Metal-enhanced chemiluminescence (mec)

This invention relates to a method for enhancing the chemiluminescence signatures (brightness) of reactions, with applications in diagnostics, such as in chemiluminescence based assays, by the use of surface bound metallic nanoparticles and either solution or surface bound chemiluminescence moieties. This technology is quite remarkable and enhanced chemiluminescence signatures beyond 1000x have been shown. This IP will allow a licensee to potentially practice substrates for enhanced chemiluminescence in any field of use.

Regions available: Europe

References for the Technology:

Weisenberg, M, Zhang, Y. and Geddes, C. D., (2010). Metal-Enhanced Chemiluminescence from Chromium, Copper, Nickel and Zinc Nanodeposits: Evidence for a second enhancement mechanism in metal-enhanced fluorescence. Applied Physics Letters, 97, 133103.

Aslan, K. and Geddes, C.D. (2009). Metal-Enhanced Chemiluminescence: Advanced Chemiluminescence Concepts for the 21st Century, Chemical Society Reviews, 38, 2556-2564.

Kadir Aslan, Micah Weisenberg, Elinor Hortle, and Chris D. Geddes. (2009). Fixed-Angle Observation of Surface Plasmon Coupled Chemiluminescence from Palladium Thin Films, Applied Physics Letters, 95, 123117.

Aslan, K. and Geddes, C.D. (2009). Directional Surface Plasmon Coupled Luminescence for Analytical Sensing Applications: Which Metal, What Wavelength, What Observation Angle?, Analytical Chemistry, 81, 6913-6922.

Aslan, K. and Geddes, C.D. (2009). Surface Plasmon Coupled Chemiluminescence from Zinc Substrates: Directional Chemiluminescence, Applied Physics Letters, 94, 073104.

Aslan K., Weisenberg M. , Hortle H. and Geddes, C.D. (2009). Surface Plasmon Coupled Chemiluminescence from Iron Thin Films: Directional and Approaching Fixed Angle Observation, Journal of Applied Physics, 106, 014313.

Weisenberg, M., Aslan, K., Hortle, E. and Geddes, C.D. (2009). Directional Surface Plasmon coupled Chemiluminescence from Nickel thin films: Fixed Angle Observation, Chemical Physics Letters, 473, 120-125.

Aslan, K., Previte, M.J.R., Zhang, Y. and Geddes, C.D. (2008). Surface Plasmon Coupled Fluorescence in the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectral Regions using Zinc Thin Films, Analytical Chemistry, 80, 7304-7312.

Chowdhury, M.H., Malyn, S.N., Aslan, K., Lakowicz, J.R., Geddes, C.D. (2007). First observation of surface plasmon-coupled chemiluminescence (SPCC), Chemical Physics Letters,435, 114–118.

Chowdhury, M.H., Aslan, K., Malyn, S.N., Lakowicz, J.R., Geddes, C.D. (2006). Metal-Enhanced Chemiluminescence, Journal of Fluorescence, 16(3), 295-299.

Chowdhury, M.H., Aslan, K. and Malyn, S.N., Lakowicz, J.R., Geddes, C.D. (2006). Metal-enhanced chemiluminescence: Radiating plasmons generated from chemically induced electronic excited states, Applied Physics Letters, 88, 173104.


5. US 20140224641 Metal-enhanced photoluminescence from carbon nanodots

This invention relates to the enhancement of detectable emissions from carbon nanodots or variants thereof by using the techniques of MEF (metal-enhanced fluorescence) to further enhance carbon nanodot brightness, photostability, and thus, potentially detectability in biological imaging applications. Carbon nanodots have become a popular technology in recent years and this IP potentially allows the licensee to use carbon nanodots in many fields of use, including diagnostics, i.e. as a fluorescent label.

Regions available: United States (US) and multiple regions of the world are available to license.

References for the Technology:

Schmitz, Rachel D., Karolin, Jan O., and Geddes, C.D. (2015). Plasmonic Enhancement of Intrinsic Carbon Nanodot Emission. Chemical Physics Letters - In Press

Zhang, Y., Goncalves, H, Esteves, JCG and Geddes, CD (2011). Metal-Enhanced Photoluminescence from Carbon Dots. Chem. Commun., 47, 5313-5315


6. US 8735175 Multicolor microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (M-MAMEF)

This invention allows for the ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of multiple DNA/RNA or biomolecules in a single sample using multicolor microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence. While biological assays are kinetically enhanced by using low power microwaves, the fluorescence of the labels is additionally enhanced by the close proximity of plasmon supporting substrates. This technology has been reduced to practice and recently clinically validated in some small studies. In numerous publications, Professor Geddes has shown that this technology can detect < 10 copies of a genome of interest in less than 1 minute. This technology is a low cost, but higher sensitivity alternate, to the widely used PCR.

Regions available: United States (US)

References for the Technology:

Dragan, A., and Geddes, CD., (2014). 5-Color Multiplexed Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence: Detection and Analysis of Multiple DNA Sequences from within one Sample Well within a Few Seconds, Journal of Fluorescence, 24(6), 1715-1722.

Dragan, A., Pavlovic, R. and Geddes, CD., (2014), Rapid Catch and Signal (RCS) Technology Platform: Multiplexed Three Color, 30s Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence DNA Assays, Plasmonics, 9(6), 1501-1510.

Dragan, A., Albrecht, MT., Pavlovic R., Keane-Myers AM., and Geddes, CD., (2012). Ultra-Fast pg/ml Anthrax toxin (PA) detection assay based on Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Analytical Biochemistry, 425, 54-61.

Tennant, S. M., Zhang, Y., Galen, J. E., Geddes, C. D., and Levine, M.M. (2011). Ultra-fast and Sensitive detection of Non-typhoidal Salmonella using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MAMEF), PloS One, 6, 4, e18700.

Dragan, A. I., Golberg, K., Elbaz, A., Marks, R., Zhang, Y and Geddes, Chris D.,(2011). Two-color, 30 second Microwave-Acceleated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence assays: A new Rapid Catch and Signal (RCS) technology. Journal of Immunological Methods, 366, 1-7.

Aslan, K., Previte, M.J.R., Zhang, Y., Gallagher, T., Baillie, L. and Geddes, C.D. (2008). Extraction and Detection of DNA from Bacillus Anthracis Spores and the Vegetative Cells within 1 minute, Analytical Chemistry, 80, 4125-4132.

Aslan, K., Zhang, Y., Hibbs, S., Baillie, L., Geddes, C.D. (2007). Microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence: application to detection of genomic and exosporium anthrax DNA in <30 seconds, Analyst, 132, 1130-1138.

Clinical Validation of the M-MAMEF Technology

Melendez, J.H., Huppert, J.S., Jett-Goheen, M., Hesse, E.A., Quinn, N., Gaydos, C.A. and Geddes, CD. (2013). Blind Evaluation of the Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence Ultrarapid and Sensitive Chlamydia Trachomatis test by use of Clinical Samples, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(9), 2913-2920.

Joshi, T., Mali., B., Geddes, C.D., Baillie, L., (2014). Extraction and Sensitive Detection of Toxins A and B from the human pathogen Clostridium difficile in 40 seconds using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Plos One, 9,8,e104334.

Zhang, Y., Agreda, P., Kelly, S., Gaydos, C., and Geddes, C. D., (2011). Development of a Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence 40 seconds, < 100 cfu/ml point of care assay for the detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 58(3), 781-784.


Fluorescent Probes / Molecules available to License


7. US 20080096281 Cyanide Sensing Compounds and Uses Thereof

This issued patent relates to a cyanide detection method using fluorescence and cyanide sensitive boronic acid containing fluorophores, wherein a change in a measured fluorescent property correlates to the concentration of the cyanide compound in a biological or environmental test sample. These molecules show both a colorimetric or fluorescence response to dissolved cyanide. Licenses are available in many fields of use. The chromophores outlined within this IP are also available for direct purchase.

Regions available: United States (US) and multiple regions of the world are available to license

References for the Technology:

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D. (2005). Enhanced-fluorescence cyanide detection at physiologically lethal levels: Reduced ICT based signal transduction, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(10), 3635-3641.

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D. (2004). Excitation and emission wavelength-ratiometric cyanide sensitive probes for physiological sensing, Analytical Biochemistry, 327, 82-90.

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D., (2005). Cyanide sensitive fluorescent probes, Dyes and Pigments, 64(1), 49-55.

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D. (2004). Fluorescence intensity and lifetime-based cyanide sensitive probes for physiological safeguard, Analytica Chimica Acta, 522(1), 9-17.


8. US 7718804 Quaternary nitrogen heterocyclic boronic acid-containing compounds sensitive to glucose and fructose; contact lens; radiometers; kits; ophthalmic sensors.

In this issued patent, Quaternary nitrogen heterocyclic boronic acid-containing compounds are described, which are sensitive to glucose and fructose, as well as a variety of other physiologically important analytes, such as aqueous chloride and iodide, and a method of using the compounds. Also claimed is a contact lens doped with the quaternary nitrogen heterocyclic boronic acid-containing compound, and a method of using the doped contact lens to measure the concentration of analyte in tears under physiological conditions. The patent provides for the use of a highly sensitive range of fluorophores towards glucose and other sugars, at levels which are physiologically relevant. This IP described highly sugar sensitive fluorophores that are available to license is a variety of fields of use. The chromophores outlined within this IP are also available for direct purchase.

Regions available: United States (US) and multiple regions of the world are available to license

References for the Technology:

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D. (2004). Ophthalmic glucose sensing: A novel monosaccharide sensing disposable and colorless contact lens, Analyst, 129, 516-529.

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D. (2004). Smart contact lenses for diabetics, Nature Materials, 3 (2004), 76.

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D. (2004). The non-invasive continuous monitoring of physiological glucose using a monosaccharide-sensing contact lens, Analytical Chemistry, 76 (2004) 610-618.

Badugu, R., Lakowicz, J.R. and Geddes, C.D. (2003). A Glucose Sensing Contact Lens: A Non-Invasive Technique for Continuous Physiological Glucose Monitoring, Journal of Fluorescence, 13(5):371-374.